- 규칙적인 운동
: 일주일에 3회 규칙적으로 수영, 산책 등의 운동을 30분씩만 해도 수명을 몇 년 연장할 수 있다. 운동은 젊음을 유지하는 최고의 명약이다.
- 약간의 스트레스
: 심하지 않은 선탠, 한 잔의 포도주, 저준위 방사선은 건강의 재앙처럼 들리지만 오히려 건강에 도움이 될 수 있다. 약간의 스트레스는 신체의 자연적인 회복 메커니즘을 자극할 뿐 아니라 활력을 주고 노화과정을 늦춘다.
- 좋은 지역에서 살기
: 어느 곳에 사느냐도 장수에 중요하다. 일본 오키나와는 건강하게 오래 사는 노인들이 많아 장수촌이라는 명성을 얻었다. 이에 비해 영국 글래스고처럼 가난하고 오염된 도시 지역에 사는 사람들의 수명은 54세에 불과하다.
: 재산과 기회가 많고 성공을 거두고 교육을 많이 받을수록 더 오래 산다는 연구 보고서들이 발표된 바 있다. 아카데미상을 받은 배우들이 그렇지 못한 배우들보다 장수한다는 보고서도 나온 적이 있다.
- 건강에 좋은 음식 먹기
: 시금치, 브로콜리처럼 항산화성분과 베타카로틴을 풍부하게 함유한 식품들은 노화과정을 지연시켜 장수에 도움이 된다.
- 자기 자신에게 도전하기
: 정신 건강은 신체 건강만큼 중요하다. 뇌가 자극을 받고, 활동을 하면 면역체계가 강화되고 우울증부터 치매에 이르기까지 많은 질병의 발병이 늦춰질 수 있다.
- 생활을 즐기기
: 좋은 인간관계는 장수의 비결이다. 기혼 남성은 평균 7년, 기혼 여성은 평균 2년을 더 장수한다. 초콜릿, 포도주, 웃음도 좋은 장수 약이다.
- 신 혹은 친구를 찾기
: 종교는 사후 세계뿐만 아니라 생전에 이미 보상을 해준다. 종교를 가진 사람이 무신론자보다 평균 7년 더 장수한다는 100여 편의 보고서들이 발표됐다. 종교처럼 친구도 행복한 장수 생활을 위한 중요한 요인이 될 수 있다.
- 식사량 줄이기
: 섭취 열량을 10∼60%쯤 줄이면 대사작용과 해로운 활성산소의 생산을 낮춤으로써 수명을 늘릴 수 있다.
- 정기적으로 건강 점검하기
: 생명을 위협하는 질병에 걸리기 전에 미리 정기적으로 건강을 점검하는 것도 100세를 살 수 있는 방법이다.
아래는 원문 (http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/health_medical/article2132502.ece)
Ten things you can do to help increase your life expectancy
Keeping fit is the elixir of youth. Even 30 minutes of regular gentle exercise three times per week, such as walking or swimming, can add years to your life expectancy.
Aerobic exercise preserves the heart, lungs and brain, elevates your mood, can help ward off breast and colon cancer and prevent atrophy of the muscles and bones.
Gareth Jones of the Canadian Centre for Activity and Ageing in London, found that for an over-50 who has never taken part in physical activity a brisk 30-minute walk three times a week can "basically reverse your physiological age by about 10 years." Not exercising can knock off five years.
A 1986 study at Stanford University found that death rates fell in direct proportion to the number of calories burned weekly.
Mild sunburn, a glass of wine and some low-level radiation sounds like a recipe for disaster, but many researchers believe that small doses of "stressors" can reverse the ageing process.
While this "hormeosis", is not a licence to lie on a hot beach all day swigging vodka, mild exposure to certain harmful agents can trigger the body's natural repair mechanisms. The body is tricked into producing particular DNA-repair enzymes and heat shock proteins to fix the damage that has been caused. Sometimes the body's repair mechanisms overcompensate, treating unrelated damage - "rejuvenating" as well as repairing it. Hormeosis could stretch the average healthy life span to 90.
Live in a good area
It is not only how you live, but where you live that matters - and the residents of Okinawa in Japan seem to know the secret. These Japanese islands are home to the world's largest population of centenarians.
At 103, the daily routine of resident Seiryu Toguchi included stretching exercises, a diet of whole grain rice and vegetables, gardening and playing his three-stringed instrument, the sanshin.
The clean-living Seventh Day Adventists of Utah also do pretty well, living on average eight years longer than their fellow Americans.
Worst off are those living in poor, polluted urban areas such as Glasgow, where residents of the poorest suburbs have a life expectancy of only 54. Overcrowding, dirt and noise all contribute to high blood pressure, anxiety and depression, which reduce lifespan.
Be very successful
The more rich, privileged, successful and educated you are, the longer you will live. The Whitehall Studies, 1967-77, examined the health of male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64, and found that men in the lowest-paid positions had a mortality rate three times higher than those at the top level.
The study proved that the more important a task a person is asked to perform, the longer they are likely to live; that the person at the top with the big office, shouting orders will have a more relaxed and pleasurable existence than his frustrated underlings. And it's not only civil servants: Canadian researchers found that Oscar-winners live longer than other actors because of am increased sense of self-worth and confidence.
And if you can't manage an Oscar, then only one extra year in education could increase your life expectancy by a year and a half.
Eat the right foods
Certain foods delay the ageing process and may increase life expectancy. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach and broccoli are rich in antioxidants and beta-carotene. Diets high in fruit, vegetables, fibre and omega-3 oils, and low in fat may prevent high blood pressure and heart disease.
In their low-fat diet of fruit, vegetables and rice, the long-living people of Okinawa also consume more soy than anyone on earth, and soy is linked to low cancer rates. Eating cooked tomato daily can slash your risk of heart disease by 30 per cent, found research at Harvard.
An active mind is as important as an active body. Studies show that you can boost your immune system and delay the onset of conditions from depression to dementia by keeping your brain engaged and stimulated.
Leonard Poon, director of the University of Georgia Gerontology Center found that people who reach three figures tend to have a high level of cognition, demonstrating skill in everyday problem-solving and learning. And Marian Diamond of the University of California, Berkley, found that rodents who were given problems to solve and toys to play with, lived 50 per cent longer.
Enjoy your life
Good relationships are the key to longevity. Social contact staves off depression, stress and boosts the development of the brain and immune system.
Most research shows that people with family, friends, partners or pets, live longer than those who don't. Marriage is also a good idea if you want to meet the 100-mark, adding an average of seven years to the life of a man, and two to a woman.
Indulgence, too, can be good for you. Chocolate can enhance endorphin levels and acts as a natural antidepressant, wine contains natural anti-oxidants, and laughing is good for your immunity.
Find God - or friends
It's official: having religion pays off - and not just in the after-life.
Nearly 1,000 studies have indicated that those who go to a place of worship are healthier than their faithless counterparts - and live an average seven years longer. One in 10 of the nuns of the convent of the School Sisters of Notre Dame in Minnesota have managed to reach their 100th birthday. But atheists should not despair: experts believe that a sense of community, and of belief in something larger than yourself, are vital ingredients in a long and happy life.
Jeff Levin, author of God, Faith, and Health: Exploring the Spirituality-Healing Connection, argues that a place of worship provides a social network and a source of comfort to the ageing, ill and needy.
Reduce your calories
One hundred years of hunger is what you can look forward to if you follow the Calorie Restriction philosophy. Practitioners of CR believe that by reducing your calorie intake (by between 10 and 60 per cent) you can extend life expectancy by lowering your metabolism and the production of harmful free radicals. It sounds like torture, but there is research to suggest that it works.
One study reported that participants who ate 25 per cent less for three months had lower levels of insulin in their blood, a reduced body temperature and less DNA damage. Brian Delaney, president of the California-based Calorie Restriction Society, is aiming to live to 122, and with a diet of barely 1,800 calories per day (2,500 is the normal for men).
Get your health checked
To last a century, stay ahead of life-threatening illnesses. It is possible with regular blood tests to detect the first signs of prostate cancer, one of the commonest causes of cancer deaths in men over 85.
If you're between 60 and 69 you can have free bowel cancer screening, cervical screening for women aged 24 to 64, and mammograms for women aged 50 to 70. Figures show that 95 per cent of women who had invasive breast cancer detected by screening are alive five years later.